Cornea is the outermost part of the eye. It is made up of layers of thin cells. It is clear, therefore we are not able to see it. The first structure of the eye we perceive is the iris which is colored brown blue or green. Iris imparts the color of the eye. Cornea transparent like the windshield of the car. When we drive during different times of the day we need to see through in the distance. The windshield needs to be clear at all times. Dust or rain can hurt our ability to see through. Likewise cornea has to always always clear ..

The cornea is masterfully crafted by nature. Even the most expensive manmade lenses can not match its accuracy of function and self preservation. The smoothness as well as shape of the cornea is as critically important to its proper functioning as well is its transparency. If either the surface level of smoothness or the quality of the cornea is altered, vision will come to be compromised.

Light travels through the clear cornea on its course towards the retina in the back component of the eye. A healthy, clear cornea is needed for perfectly clear vision. Sometimes, the cornea is referred to as the “window” to the eye. Occidentally, either through condition or injury, the corneal tissue is harmed to a point where light could no longer successfully pass through it, causing reduced vision.

Although appearing to be one clear membrane, the cornea is really composed of five distinct layers of tissue, each with its own function. The slim outer layer, or epithelium, is a dependent obstacle against corneal infection. It normally has to be damaged before an infectious representative can get a jump start between layers (stroma) of the cornea. Just below this layer is a fibrous band called Bowman's membrane. It is important for the integrity of the cornea. The third layer is constructed from collagen, a connective tissue. This forms eighty percent of the cornea. Besides collagen fibrils, there are cells called Keratocytes. The density is of the fibers is higher towards the Bowman's membrane. Below the stroma is again a fibrous layer. This is termed as Descemet's membrane. It is the scaffolding for the innermost layer of cells called Endothelium cells.

When endothelial cells are healthy and balanced, they function as a “pump-leak system” to provide nutrients for the cornea. In other words these cells allow nourishing fluid from inside the eye (liquid food) to leak into the cornea. After the corneal cells have actually been nourished, the cells pump the fluid from the cornea. If the endothelial pump is compromised for any reason the cornea will certainly over hydrate as well as become hazy. This most frequently takes place in patients that have suffered injury to the endothelial layer during complex cataract surgical procedure or individuals that have actually received illness of the corneal endothelium referred to as Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy.